Today the COP22 (Conference of Parties) of the United Nations Framework Convention in Climate Change starts in Marrakech. For the next two weeks, representatives from governments, civil society, the private sector and academia from all over the world will discuss some of the most important actions that need to be taken to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to meet the 2oC global average temperature goal.
COP22 is meant to advance the agenda put forward by the December 2015 Paris Agreement in COP21, which entered into force last Friday. There is relative consensus around the fact that the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) presented to fulfill the Paris Agreement will not result in sufficient greenhouse gas emissions reductions, even if successfully implemented. This is why over the past year, a growing amount of attention and initiatives have focused on the role that technology innovation can play by reducing the costs of climate mitigation and thereby enabling more ambitious national goals.
Two particular new efforts have catalyzed most of the attention. The first is the Mission Innovation pledge, in which 20 major countries committed to doubling public energy R&D investments between 2015 and 2020. The second is the Breakthrough Energy Coalition, a commitment from 28 high net worth individuals (to date) to complement Mission Innovation with patient and long-term private sector funding and expertise. I recently presented in different events aimed at exploring how to accelerate technology innovation in clean energy technologies in the context of both of these efforts.
In early October I was invited to speak at the Innovation for Cool Earth Forum (ICEF 2016) in Tokyo. This was the third installation of an annual event organized by the Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) and the New Energy Development Organization (NEDO) of the Japanese Government focused on the role of technology innovation. In my panel on the “Desirable R&D for Innovative Technologies and the Potential for International Collaboration” there was widespread agreement that the focus should now be on how such efforts should be structured. I also participated in an International Symposium organized by the Canon Institute of Global Studies on “The Role of Innovation for Long-term GHG Mitigation”.
Together with Professor David Victor (from UC San Diego), Professor Carlo Carraro (from FEEM, and Vice Chair of the IPCC WG III), Dr. Yoichi Kaya (President of RITE, in Japan), Professor Jun Arima (from the University of Tokyo), and Dr. Yarime Masaru (CUHK) (see picture above) we presented on and discussed the institutional, organizational and technological requirements of domestic and international efforts in technology innovation. It was refreshing to see that instead of focusing on how much support for energy R&D is necessary (an important area that many of us have contributed to for many years), the conversation is now also including research on what types of funding and institutions are necessary for what technologies and actors (from startups, to universities, to large firms); on how to learn from past experience; and how to build stable collaborations. Recent work with colleagues published in Nature Energy on the U.S. National Labs as well as our 2014 Transforming U.S. Energy Innovation book and ongoing work on public private partnerships were of particular interest.
And just last Friday I presented in a session on Demand Pull Policies and Energy Innovation at the 38th Fall Annual Research Conference organized by the Association in Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) in Washington D.C. It was wonderful to see so many great colleagues again and to have the chance to discuss the work with Prof. Claudia Doblinger and Dr. Kavita Surana on the impact of different types of partners and partnerships on the performance of clean tech startups. The focus of institutional design in the session continued with Prof. Nemet’s work on technology demonstration projects, Prof. Tobias Schmidt’s work on the location of learning across different types of energy technologies, and Prof. Varun Rai’s work on learning in solar PV in China. Many of my colleagues in these panels are able to make it to Marrakech, so I am sure the conversation on the “how” will have a chance to move forward!